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Most Popular Backend Languages in 2023?

most popular backend languages

When it comes to web development, the backend is something you can not compromise on. That being said, you must start with choosing the right backend framework to ensure a proper development process. And, if you are still confused about choosing between the most popular backend languages in 2023, you have landed on the right page.

Read on to explore the most popular backend languages in 2023 and how to choose the right one.

Choosing The Right Backend Stack

The decision is further complicated by the fact that there is no way to definitively rank one language, framework, runtime environment, or stack over another because each has unique benefits and drawbacks.

Different technologies could be interchangeable in some tasks. Others would find it impossible. Making an educated decision is crucial as opposed to relying on widely held misconceptions or adopting the simplest course of action.

To help you with this decision, we’ll walk you through the most well-liked and widely-used backend web technologies in this post. 

A set of programming languages, frameworks, libraries, databases, servers, and other components known as a “technology stack” are required to create any type of software.

These parts are stacked one on top of the other to strengthen one another and create a complete working application. 

The stack in web development consists of the following: 

stack in web development

Frontend: The frontend, also known as the client side. It is the area of the program that is visible and easily accessible to users. Components like HTML, CSS, JavaScript and its frameworks make up the basic frontend technology stack (for example, React and Angular).

Backend: Users cannot see or access the backend, which is also known as the server side. It serves as the application’s “backbone.” Programming languages like Ruby and Python, libraries and frameworks like Ruby on Rails and Django, and a JavaScript runtime environment like Node.js are the most often used backend components. 

Both frontend and backend development may be done by a full-stack developer.

What Factors To Consider? 

Choosing the appropriate pieces of the stack might be challenging with so many options available. Even more challenging is the fact that the technology utilized to create an app influences its functionality and, as a result, may contribute to the project’s success. 

On the other hand, the kind of application has an impact on the technology selection. A lousy choice might contribute to the app’s downfall. Of course, there are many other factors that contribute to a project’s success or failure, but technology may have a significant impact.

For startups or small enterprises with constrained resources and small development teams who obviously, can’t be experts in every technology, all of that can be very difficult.

Large businesses, meanwhile, may have the same issue, albeit on a smaller scale.

In reality, a team’s preferences may play a significant role in the decision. Even if you are set on using a particular technology, you can end up changing your mind after having trouble finding a team that is prepared to use it.

List of popular backend framework

Here are some other factors to consider: 

Project Scope & Complexity: Simple programs with short development cycles, especially MVPs, need a different strategy than complex products with a wide range of features. However, pick a stack that is adaptable and expandable if you believe you might need to upgrade in the future. 

Nature Of The Item: Different stacks will probably be needed for data-intensive apps, booking systems, social networking apps, streaming apps, CMS, IoT, FinTech apps, marketplaces, and straightforward MVPs.

Price: On the vast list of benefits that open-source software provides to stakeholders and developers alike, keep in mind that specific tools are open-source and free for commercial usage. Others are salaried and licensed. Additionally, developers get paid differently based on the technology they know how to use. Stacks that are regarded as niches might be expensive. Additionally, remember that when the app is out, you still need to maintain, update, and perhaps upscale it.

Now that you know the factors that go into consideration when choosing the most used backend language technology, here’s a list of the most famous languages. 

List Of The Most Popular Backend Technologies In 2023

Django

Django - Backend Framework

A well-known open-source backend framework built on the Python programming language, Django, follows a Model view controller (MVC).  

One of the simplest backend frameworks, Django is appropriate for the creation of complex and feature-rich database-driven websites. One of the greatest backend web development frameworks is Django. 

The backend framework allows for better pluggability, less code, more reuse, and quicker development. All Django activities are performed in Python, and an optional admin interface is provided to assist with operations like creation, reading, updating, and deletion. Numerous well-known websites, including Disqus, Mozilla, and The Washington Times, use Django.

Advantages

Faster framework: Django was designed to assist developers to accelerate the whole development process from beginning to end. It is also relatively easy to use with a short learning curve. It is regarded as a straightforward backend for websites. 

Features: Django offers a large range of capabilities to assist users in handling some specific web development needs. It assists with several tasks, including user authentication, sitemaps, content management, and more. 

High Security: Django is a safe framework that aids users in avoiding several security problems, including as request forgery, cross-site scripting, clickjacking, and SQL injection. Users are given a method for user authentication so they may safely save and manage their passwords and accounts.

Features

Open source: The Django web application framework is free and available to use. It is trustworthy, straightforward, and easy to use. 

Unique Naming: Django has its own naming conventions for all of its tools and features. In contrast to Yii and Lavarel, it also offers an admin interface that is simple to use. 

Simple syntax, MVC core architecture, ORM (Object Relational Mapper), Middleware support, and HTTP libraries are just a few of Django’s standout characteristics. Additionally, Django contains a web server of its own, a framework for Python unit testing, and various components needed to resolve specific problems.

Drawback

Not For Small Projects: According to some engineers, Django is not a good backend framework for small projects since it requires a lot of code. More computing power and bandwidth are also required.

Complicated Framework: The absence of conventions is another drawback of the Django framework. For developers, the absence of standards causes a variety of issues, such as low comfort levels, contrasting components, and sluggish development rates. 

Limited Control: Due to the monolithic structure of the Django framework, development teams have less control over the process. Similar to this, developers must write more programs due to fewer dependencies.

Laravel

Laravel - Popular Backend Languages

For creating Symfony-based web applications that adhere to the model-view-controller (MVC) architecture, Lavarel is the best open-source PHP web framework. 

It provides specialized dependency management and a modular packaging mechanism. One of the top web frameworks is Laravel, which some experts believe to be the greatest backend development tool. 

Along with offering its customers several methods of accessing relational databases, Laravel also provides application deployment and maintenance tools. Laravel’s source code is hosted on GitHub and is available under an MIT license.

Advantages

Easy Configuration: Since Laravel allows for basic settings, implementing authentication is quite trivial. Simple structuring of authorization logic and straightforward resource access management is made possible by Laravel. 

Simple APIs: The SwiftMailer module integrates seamlessly with Laravel’s simple API. Mandrill, SMTP, Mailgun, Amazon SES, and SparkPost drivers are available from Laravel. Additionally, it sends mail and has PHP mail drivers. Fast application mail sending is possible with Laravel thanks to a local or cloud-based service. Additionally, it offers assistance with delivering notifications via several delivery methods.

Cache backends: Redis, Memcached, and other popular cache backends are readily supported by Laravel. It makes use of the file cache driver to carry out caching of objects in a file system. APC or Memcached are examples of in-memory caches used by larger programs. Additionally, users of Laravel may set up several cache setups. 

High-end Error Handling: An exception and error handling system is preconfigured in a Laravel app. Additionally, Laravel incorporates the Monolog logging framework and provides support for numerous log handlers. 

Validating: Laravel is test-friendly and provides PHPUnit support in addition to an application-ready phpunit.xml file. The framework includes helpful techniques for testing expressive applications. Additionally, Laravel offers simple user behavior modeling for tasks like form completion, link clicks, and app requests.

Features

Templates: The Laravel framework has a lightweight built-in template engine that may be used to generate layouts and seed content. Additionally, widgets containing JS and CSS code are included. Simple and complicated sectioned layouts may be developed using Laravel templates. 

MVC Architectural Support: To efficiently segregate the presentation and business logic layers, Laravel provides support for the MVC architecture pattern. The Laravel MVC delivers a wide range of features, enhances performance, and increases scalability and security.

ORM Mapping: MUsers of Laravel can use Eloquent Object Relational Mapping (ORM), which includes a straightforward PHP Active Record implementation. Without writing SQL code, ORM enables PHP-based database query construction for application developers. Comparatively speaking, an ORM is quicker than other PHP frameworks. 

High Security: The Laravel framework offers robust password hashing and salting for online applications. Because of this, databases do not store passwords in plain text. Laravel also creates encrypted passwords using the Bcrypt Hashing Algorithm. Prepared SQL statements are used in this development framework to lessen the likelihood of injection attacks.

Drawbacks

Slower Development: In order to remain in any sector nowadays, a development pace is quite essential. Additionally, it has been noted that compared to other backend frameworks, Laravel’s development speed is a little slower. 

Limited Support: Laravel offers less built-in support than competing backend frameworks like Django and Ruby on Rails. Although this restriction is overcome by third-party solutions, utilizing Laravel still has its drawbacks. 

Uncertain Updates: This backend framework’s infrequent upgrades might put developers in danger, especially if they don’t take any safety measures and accept them.

Express.JS

Express.JS

The Node.js online application framework Express.js, also referred to as Express, is open-source software that is distributed under the MIT license. It serves as a standard Node.js server framework and is employed for the development of APIs and online applications. 

Along with the AngularJS frontend framework, NoSQL databases, and Express, the MEAN stack includes backend components. One of the top frameworks for creating web applications is Express.

Advantages

Easy learning: The majority of front-end engineers utilize JavaScript, one of the most popular programming languages. The Node.js backend is simple for developers to use because understanding it doesn’t take much time or effort. 

Follows a single language: Node.js is a single programming language that enables programmers to create server-side applications using JavaScript. Employing a JavaScript runtime environment, it enables Node.js developers to construct both the backend and front-end web apps. There is no requirement for developers to use any additional server-side languages. The majority of widely-used browsers now support JavaScript, making the deployment of web applications more simple.

Full-stack JS features: Node.js is a full-stack JavaScript backend that can be used for both server-side and client-side applications. Therefore, it is unnecessary to rely on separate front-end and back-end developers. It is a fantastic method to save both time and money. 

High speed: High speed is delivered because Node.js interprets code using Google’s V8 JavaScript engine. The engine supports the conversion of JavaScript-based code to machine code and makes it simpler to successfully implement the code. Because JavaScript provides non-blocking I/O operations, the runtime environment further enhances the speed of execution.

Features

Quick Server-Side Programming: A Node.js framework called Express.js offers several of Node.js’ most popular capabilities. Throughout the course of the program, these characteristics can be used in many ways. Instead of creating large amounts of code, Express JS developers may quickly include a few lines of code. Compared to Node.JS, Express offers a fast web application development process. 

Easy Sharing: Routing is a technology that enables web applications to save URL-based webpage states. Users can visit shared URLs to access the state-storage page. URLs can be shared with others. In contrast to Express.js, which offers a more complex routing system capable of managing dynamic URLs, Node.js offers a primary routing mechanism.

Easy Debugging: During development projects, bugs are relatively prevalent and might result in severe program problems. Developers must quickly locate the causes of issues and fix them. Express.js provides an easy-to-use debugging framework to help developers locate the root of application errors.

Drawbacks

Limited Features: Express.js’s lack of a specified body-parser is a source of complaints from many developers. These programmers claim that the inclusion of a body parser by default will make this backend architecture a more dependable option. 

Limited Security: In terms of security, Express.js doesn’t provide anything particularly noteworthy. When utilizing this backend architecture, it relies on how securely developers strive to create their applications. 

Not for Huge Projects: Despite working exceptionally well for mid-sized and small projects, some developers claim that Express.js is not the best middleware backend framework for large projects.

Read Also: Express JS vs Node JS: What Are The Differences?

Nest.JS

Nest.JS

Nest.JS is used to create server-side Node.JS applications. Because TypeScript is used in the Nest framework, developers may create highly scalable and tested apps. 

Nest.JS, which is built on top of Express.JS, provides a variety of features and out-of-the-box APIs. Nest.JS characteristics may be used by developers to create applications with minimal code. 

Angular architecture is strongly reliant on Nest.JS. A structured environment is layered inside a number of files. By segmenting the files into several modules, Nest.JS enables developers to concentrate on a specific feature at a time.

Advantages

Modules: Modules are used to divide functionality into logical, reusable components and to structure the code. A “@Module” decorator that adds metadata is applied to grouped TypeScript files. This information is used by Nest.js to arrange the application’s structure. 

Providers: Providers abstract complexity and logic in any form. It is possible to build new providers and inject them into controllers or existing providers. 

Controllers: The client side of an application can use controllers to manage incoming requests and offer suitable answers (for example, call to the API).

Features

Leverages Powerful Command Line Interface (CLI) for TypeScript, a strongly typed language that is a superset of JavaScript, to increase productivity and development efficiency.

Built-in dependency injection (DI) container, which makes applications more efficient and modular. 

Lazy offers support for hundreds of Nest-specific modules that make it simple to interact with popular technologies and ideas, including TypeORM, Mongoose, GraphQL, Logging, Validation, Caching, WebSockets, and much more. 

Simple applications for unit testing 

Ruby on Rails 

Ruby on Rails - best Backend Frameworks

A Ruby-based server-side web application framework with an MIT License, Ruby on Rails is sometimes referred to as Rails. An MVC framework called Rails provides web pages, online services, and default database structures. One of the top web development frameworks, Ruby on Rails, is regarded as the finest-performance web framework by several programmers. 

The usage of web standards like XML or JSON for data transfers and CSS, JavaScript, and HTML for interfaces is encouraged by Ruby on Rails. The active record pattern, convention over configuration (CoC), and don’t repeat yourself are among the software engineering patterns that Rails prioritize (DRY).

Advantages 

Time-Efficiency: Ruby on Rails provides a variety of pre-made modules and plugins, allowing developers to spend less time writing boilerplate code. Compared to situations when they use other frameworks, it helps development teams to reduce application build times. 

Stability: Ruby on Rails gives programmers access to standardized file storage methods and coding standards. In addition to saving a lot of time, it aids in maintaining a project’s structural uniformity and readability.

Reasonably Priced: Ruby on Rails is available as open-source software using the MIT license. It implies that there is no cost for consumers to get the framework. Users can add features by using Gems rather than building them from the bottom up. They can thus save a great deal of time and effort. The open-source website GitHub offers gems that may be downloaded for a variety of uses. 

Faster Development: Ruby on Rails allows users to create bug-free software through high-quality development. Users can access numerous testing features, including mocking, expectation syntax, and test benchmarking, through the Rails core’s Minitest tool. The best platform for behavior-driven deployment (BDD) and test-driven deployment is Ruby on Rails (TDD). Cost-cutting is a benefit of both of these development strategies.

Adaptability: Ruby on Rails’ backend provides customers with a lot of scalability. For websites focused on serving a large volume of clients, it is more suited than many of its competitors. One of the factors that lead many people to choose Ruby on Rails is its scalability.

Features

Modern Architecture: Ruby on Rails is built on the MVC design, one of the most popular web application frameworks in the world. Ruby on Rails may be readily learned by developers with expertise in utilizing MVC techniques. This design divides codes into several functional groups, such as the data layer, display layer, and resource layer maintenance. 

Template Method: The most used backend language, Ruby on Rails, depends on the active record library, which makes it simple for developers to execute database interaction query design. SQL queries that receive outputs and return objects are created from questions written in the Ruby programming language. Since the Ruby on Rails active record library is fairly robust, creating a SQL query is not as necessary.

Convention Over Configuration: Because Ruby on Rails offers dynamic runtime extensions, reflections, and conventions, it does not use configuration files. It uses a “Convention over Configuration” strategy to assign value automatically without requesting user input. Software systems like Java web application frameworks use several configuration files, each with a variety of options. Due to the fact that users do not have to allot time for configuring files, convention increases productivity. 

Simple Testing: Ruby on Rails provides RSpec, a user-friendly unit testing solution, making testing straightforward. Users may quickly test individual functions using independent calls, ensuring that an application has received sufficient testing.

Limitations

Better Documentation: Rails does not offer developers adequate high-quality documentation. It can be challenging for programmers to locate valid documentation for obscure libraries and gems. Because of this, development teams frequently choose a test suite instead of documentation. 

Slow Runtime Performance: Users have several issues as a result of Rails’ slow runtime speed. If you are working with a high-traffic application using this backend technology, poor runtime speed will be your worst nightmare. 

Not Enough Flexibility: Due to its lack of flexibility, RoR is not thought to be the best option for unusual sorts of projects. Here, a poor choice might have devastating consequences.

Spring Boot

Spring Boot - popular Backend Framework

The inversion of the control container for the Java platform is the open-source Spring Framework. The main functions of this framework may be used by Java applications. For building web applications based on the Java EE platform, users can make use of a variety of extensions.

Advantages 

  • Support for Undertow, Jetty, and Tomcat is built-in 
  • No need for boilerplate configuration. 
  • DevTools facilitates server auto restart for code and configuration upgrades. 
  • It’s simpler to handle dependencies 
  • The management of profile-specific attributes is simple. 
  • Customizing application properties is simple. 
  • Developers may easily use SpringBoot Starters.

Features 

Initialization: SpringBoot supports lazy initialization on the developer’s end. Activating this feature enables developers to construct beans in response to needs rather than at the beginning of an application. Lazy initialization can thereby reduce the amount of time required for the program to start. 

Personalization: Modification of startup banners is possible by adding a banner.txt file to the user’s classpath. By referring the Spring. banner.location attribute to the appropriate file location, banners may also be changed. If a file uses an encoding other than UTF-8, users can provide a spring.banner.charset. Users have the option of adding text files and the pictures banner.jpg, banner.gif, and banner.png to a classpath. They may also set the location of the Spring.banner.image.

Fluent Builder API: Developers can use your fluent builder API or SpringApplicationBuilder to create an ApplicationContext hierarchy. 

Liveness State: An application’s Liveness state is in charge of informing the user if its internal state permits it to operate or, in the event of a failure, how to proceed with the recovery. The infrastructure restarts the program if a Liveness state is broken, rendering it unrecoverable.

Limitations

Less Control: Spring Boot increases the size of deployment files and creates unexpected dependencies. This leads to the issue of having no control over an application. For control freaks, it is unquestionably the incorrect decision. 

Not Ideal For Monolithic Projects: Spring Boot is excellent for building microservices. For creating monolithic apps, it might not be the ideal option. 

Not For Beginners: You shouldn’t use it if you are not familiar with the Spring ecosystem and AOP programming or if you have never coded with the Spring. Yes, using Spring Boot may be difficult for you as a beginner developer.

Read Also: How To Develop Web Application Using Ruby on Rails

Flask 

Flask - Backend Frameworks

The micro web framework Flask is built on Python and doesn’t need any particular libraries or tools. This backend does not include any components that depend on other sources for its functionality, such as a database abstraction layer or a form validation system. Extensions that add functionality can be supported by Flask and made to appear as though they were built into the framework itself.

Advantages 

Simpler Development: Flask is simple to use for developers who are familiar with Python. Because there are so few standards, it is simpler to learn how to utilize this backend platform. 

Adaptability: Flask’s many components may be changed in a safe manner to suit needs. This is due to how easy it is to configure and how simple it is to use. 

Higher Performance: High performance for the majority of users is what the Flask microframework is supposed to deliver. This is due to the fact that there are fewer abstraction layers between the user and the requests, cache, and database. It is able to deliver a high standard of performance.

Modularity: Flask employs modular code, which streamlines the development process for programmers. It enables them to quickly create several Flask servers and apps dispersed over vast server networks and perform certain functions. Flask’s modular design promotes increased testability and effectiveness. 

Features 

Known as one of the best backend languages, Flask comes with the following features: 

  • Provides development servers and debugging features. 
  • WSGI conformity 
  • Google App Engine compatible backend that is built on Unicode 
  • Utilizes Templates for Jinja2 
  • Extensions with integrated unit testing support for enhanced functionality 

Limitations

Not the Best for Large Projects: If you’re planning to use this Python-based backend framework for complex apps, it could take a lot of effort. 

Lack Of Support: Flask receives less community support than rival Python framework, Django, according to development teams. Only 51,379 questions for Flask can be found on Stack Overflow, however, there are around 296,134 questions about Django. 

No Authentication: Flask does not offer admin properties or authentication for user logins, which is a significant disadvantage of utilizing this backend framework.

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Best Language For Backend Development in 2023 For You

Choosing the proper framework for backend development requires a lot of consideration, especially if the market is filled with the best backend languages. Though there are a lot of options, you can easily leverage the best features with the languages listed above. 

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